Research Reports

Read and download reports of novel on-farm research projects designed and led by farmers in field crops, horticulture, livestock, energy and more.

Research reports are written by Practical Farmers staff to ensure consistency and quality, and are available to view or download for free below.

Title Date Member Priorities Description People
Effect on corn of green manure cover crops … 03/30/17 CCFCRD In a Nutshell • Green manure cover crops best fit into extended and diversified crop rotations between the small grain and corn phases of the rotation. • Farmer-cooperator Wade Dooley compared corn following two green manure strategies: a red clover + sweet mix interseeded with a cereal rye seed crop vs. a mix of oats + sorghumsudangrass + peas + rapeseed mix established after cereal rye seed harvest. Key Findings • The two green manure mixes produced similar amounts of biomass and N. • Corn yields were greater by nearly 30 bu/ac following the clover mix (corn in both treatments received 100 lb N/ac as purchased N fertilizer). • Financial returns on investment per acre were greater by $123.90 with the clover mix treatment.
Seeding Technique and Date Effect on Cover Crop … 03/22/17 CCRD The highboy seeding technique allows for an early seeding date that resulted in additional cover crop growth when compared to the drilled treatment that followed corn and soybean harvest. When comparing biomass of cover crop mixtures, the cereal rye and oats in the cover crop mixes made up the majority of the growth recorded. Corn and soybean yields tended to be unaffected by the cover crops. · ·
Winter Cereal Rye Cover Crop Effect on Cash … 01/13/17 CCFCRD Farmers reported that in 55 of 59 site-years, properly managed cover crops had little to no negative effect on corn and soybean yield (and actually increased soybean yield in 7 siteyears and corn yield in 2 site-years). · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Annual Flowering Herbs for Pollinators Variety … 12/07/16 HRD In a Nutshell • Two farmers planted strips of flowering herbs – anise hyssop, borage, and lemon basil – with cash crops on their farms. Pollinators in prairie strips were also observed. • Farmers evaluated characteristics of the herbs and assessed pollinator use of the herbs by doing transect counts of pollinators during bloom. Key Findings • Neither farm had successful direct seedings of anise hyssop (McGary had success with transplanting). • Borage filled out and flowered earliest though it became top-heavy, fell over, and had late-season weed management issues. • Lemon basil (and anise hyssop, at Mc- Gary’s) had healthy, upright habits but required more early-season weeding at Hartmann’s. • Small native bees had the most individuals counted among all pollinator groups observed on both farms. • Hartmann’s lemon basil had the most pollinators; at McGary’s, borage had the highest average count. ·
Using Goats to Control Invasive Species 12/07/16 LRD In a Nutshell • Goats are becoming a popular method of controlling unwanted vegetation and invasive species, such as honeysuckle and multiflora rose. • Timber stands and savannahs need some sort of disturbance to keep invasive species from spreading in order for native species to flourish. • Goats were allowed to browse a timber stand twice in 2015 and vegetation observations were conducted throughout 2015 and 2016. Key findings • Goats did not adversely affect the herbaceous layer (understory) of a timber stand. • Goats did not significantly affect the desirable woody species. • By September 2016, areas where goats browsed in 2015 had significantly less non-desirable woody species. • Successive years of browsing goats are likely needed to successfully eradicate invasive species.
Summer Broccoli Variety Trial 12/07/16 HRD In a Nutshell • Six farmers compared three broccoli varieties, Belstar, Gypsy and Imperial, to determine which produces better during summer months (harvest July – Sept.) in Iowa. Key Findings • Imperial had the highest yields at four of six farms, followed by Gypsy and Belstar. • At three farms, Imperial had statistically higher yields than the other varieties. • Plant spacing differed by farm, but average yield per area was 0.28 lb/ft2 for Imperial, followed by Gypsy (0.27 lb/ ft2), and Belstar (0.22 lb/ft2) • Following the indications of the data, most farmers strongly preferred Imperial as their summer broccoli variety. · · · · ·
Monitoring Birds in Rotationally Grazed Pasture 12/06/16 LRD In a Nutshell • Wild bird populations can thrive in properly managed working landscapes. • Cattle activity changes grassland structure; creating areas with short and tall vegetation, which provides habitat that is less available in conservation areas. • Rotationally grazed pastures have the capacity to support greater bird populations, for some species, than conservation areas that are not grazed. Key findings • Restored prairie in a conservation area supported 285 birds of 21 species. • Rotationally grazed perennial pasture supported 553 birds of 22 species. • Rotationally grazed perennial+annual pasture supported 524 birds of 28 species. • Pastures better supported some birds that have conservation implications, than the restored prairie.
Enterprise Budget for Cucumbers, Year 2 12/06/16 HRD In a Nutshell • Three farmers provided enterprise budgets for cucumber production in 2016. • Cucumbers were grown in a heated greenhouse (Ann Franzenburg), an unheated high tunnel (Emma Johnson), and an open field (Jan Libbey). • Franzenburg, Johnson, and Libbey also provided enterprise budgets for year one of this study in 2015. Key Findings • Labor was the largest expense for Johnson and Libbey, accounting for 74% and 94% of their total expenses, respectively. Labor was only 40% of Franzenburg’s costs. • Labor breakdown by task differed at each farm. The largest tasks on each farm, measured in hours, were: pruning and trellising at Franzenburg, field maintenance at Johnson, and harvesting and packing at Libbey. • Production in the greenhouse at Franzenburg’s provided highest yield (lb fruit/ft2) and number of fruit per ft2. • Among the three farms, outdoor production at Libbey’s had the highest net income per pound. · ·
Cereal Rye Cover Crop Termination Date Ahead of … 11/30/16 CCFC In a Nutshell • Delaying cover crop termination until near soybean planting would allow for more biomass production by the cover crop in the spring presenting the opportunity for more environmental benefit. • Two farmer-cooperators continued work they began in 2015 that compares terminating a cereal rye cover crop 2-3 weeks prior to seeding soybeans (early termination) with terminating the cover crop within 5 days of seeding soybeans (late termination). Key findings • Jeremy Gustafson saw a 2 bu/ac increase and improved weed control with the late termination treatment in 2016. This amounted to a $49.97/ac economic benefit compared to the early termination treatment. In 2015, soybean yields were equivalent between the two termination date treatments. • Jack Boyer saw no difference in soybean yields between the two cover crop termination treatments in either year. In 2015, he was able to skip a post-emergence herbicide application which saved him approx. $40/ac. ·
Determinate Tomato in High Tunnel, Variety Trial 11/22/16 HRD Two farms conducted replicated variety trials in high tunnels of two determinate tomato varieties, Mountain Fresh Plus and Rebelski. Key Findings • Yield at both farms was lower than yields reported in other published high tunnel variety trials. • Rebelski yield was higher at Landgraf’s, with 1.4 lb/plant difference. • Rebelski yield was also higher at Quee’s, with 2.1 lb/plant difference. ·
Nitrogen Rate Comparison in Corn Following … 11/18/16 CCFCSGRD Various green manure cover crop mixes can successfully be established following the harvest of a small grain crop in mid-summer. • Following cereal rye seed harvest in July 2015, farmer-cooperator Tim Sieren seeded a brassica mix into one field and a legume mix into another field. He then compared 2016 corn yields resulting from a Low and High N fertilizer rate that followed the green manure mixes in the separate fields. Key Findings • Regardless of the green manure mix it followed, corn yields were significantly greater with the 145 lb N/ac (High) rate compared to the 95 lb N/ac (Low) rate. • Wet summer months likely contributed to the superiority of the High N rate in terms of both yield and financial returns in 2016.
Oat Cover Crop vs. Straw Mulch for Garlic … 11/18/16 CCHRD • This project tested the effect on over-wintered garlic yield of planting date and two mulching strategies: companion-seeded oat cover crop vs. straw mulch. • Farmer-cooperator Mark Quee planted garlic in September with a companion oat cover crop (oat residue following winterkill intended to serve as mulch). Garlic planted in October was mulched with straw. Key Findings • September-planted garlic had higher yield than October-planted, but pervasive rot in several areas of the field may have impacted results.
Cover Crop Termination Date Ahead of Corn 11/17/16 CCFCRD In a Nutshell • Delaying cover crop termination until corn planting is commonly understood to cause corn yield drag. However, the potential for increased cover crop growth by delaying termination has farmers wondering if that yield drag is true and/or can be overcome. • Farmer-cooperator Dick Sloan planted corn on the same date (May 5) following two cover crop termination dates: 2 weeks prior to planting corn (early) and 2 days prior to planting corn (late). Key Findings • Sloan saw a 5 bu/ac corn yield reduction with the late termination date. • Corn stands were not affected by cover crop termination date. • Soil temperatures were slightly warmer for one week in May in the early termination date.
Economic Benefits from Utilizing Cover Crops as … 11/09/16 CCLRD In a Nutshell • Planting cover crops, then grazing or harvesting them, is a practical way to effectively reduce nutrient pollution, plus provide economic benefits to cattle owners. • This represents a win-win for livestock producers and water quality for Iowa. Key findings • Four farmers in northwest Iowa reported that in the fall and winter of 2015, cover crops provided 0.07 to 3.74 tons of dry matter per acre. • Grazing this cover saved farmers $1,306 to $22,801 in hay or other stored feed expenses · · ·
Summer Annual Forage Established After Cereal … 10/25/16 CCFCLRD In a Nutshell • Cover crops and summer annual forage mixes can provide a host of benefits to annual cropping systems: add biodiversity, reduce soil erosion, reduce nutrient loss, increase soil organic matter and reduce weed pressure. • Dave and Meg Schmidt evaluated the effect of applying chicken litter to a cereal rye + hairy vetch cover crop and grazing the cover crop ahead of establishing a summer annual forage mix. Key findings • Grazing the cereal rye + hairy vetch cover crop resulted in more biomass production than where not grazed. • The application of chicken litter did not affect cover crop growth or summer annual forage biomass production. • Hairy vetch in the cover crop successfully established (seeded in late August 2015) and may have contributed a substantial amount of N to the succeeding summer annual forage crop.
Testing for Fungicide Drift in Cereal Rye Trials 10/20/16 FCSGRD • Two farmers tested Spray strips and No-Spray control strips of cereal rye for fungicide residue. • This project was a secondary project within “Fungicide and Plant Growth Regulator Effect on Cereal Rye Production” (Gailans et al., 2016). Key Findings • At Sieren’s farm, no propiconazole residue was found above the detectable limit of 0.05 ppm in No- Spray control strips. • At Sloan’s farm, metconazole residues of 0.02 ppm were found in both control strip samples, compared to the 1.30 ppm baseline residue level in the sprayed sample. ·
Winter Triticale Seeding Rate 10/20/16 FCSGRD Seeding rates of small grains, like triticale, are important to achieve optimal plant stands, yields and yield quality. • Paul Mugge compared two seeding rates of winter triticale. Key Findings • The two seeding rates resulted in equivalent final plant populations and yields.
Fungicide and Plant Growth Regulator Effect on … 09/30/16 FCSG In a Nutshell • Fungal diseases and lodging can present challenges to raising small grain crops, like cereal rye, in Iowa. • Farmer-cooperators investigated the use of fungicides and plant growth regulators on cereal rye seed crops to determine effects on yield and germination rate. Key Findings • Across four fields at three farms, in only one instance, when a fungicide was paired with a growth regulator, were cereal rye seed yields and financial returns improved. • Germination percentage of harvested seed was generally greater than 90% regardless of treatment. · ·
Oat Variety Trials 2016 09/13/16 FCSGRD · · ·
Cover Crop Variety Trial 2015-2016 07/07/16 CCRD · · ·
Improving Cool-Season Pastures with … 07/06/16 LRD In a Nutshell • Interseeding annuals into pastures increases forage diversity, quality, and quantity. • Bruce Carney developed seed mixtures and interseeded them into existing cool season pastures. • Seed mixtures vastly increased pasture diversity. • Grazing management to harvest or trample forage at the right time and to a proper degree is essential to feed both livestock and soil microbes. Key findings • During the establishment year in 2014, few advantages were seen in grazing days or forage yield, but a baseline was established for future comparison. • In 2015, two fields were seeded once with a cool season mix, and one field was seeded multiple times with cool and warm season mixes. • Total tons of dry matter harvested by cattle or baled was greater in 2015 than 2014; animal unit days provided from forage produced were doubled from year 2014 to year 2015. • After multiple interseedings and two years of rotational grazing on three pastures, compaction near the soil surface (<6 inches) increased but decreased deeper down (>21 inches).
Effect of Compost Extract on Head Lettuce Yield 07/06/16 HRD In a Nutshell • Compost extract is made by steeping compost in water, then applying the sieved water (with compost extract) as a soil drench with the intention to increase beneficial soil biota, and increased plant health, Brix and yield. • At two farms, compost extract was applied as a drench treatment to head lettuce. • Yield and Brix readings of head lettuce was measured to determine impact of compost extract applications. Key Findings • Drenching soil with compost extract did not affect lettuce yield at either farm. • Drenching soil with compost extract did not affect Brix levels in lettuce at Danreis’ farm. • Compost price could be cost prohibitive; at high-intensity application, compost cost was $1.25/row-ft.
Winter Cereal Rye Cover Crop Effect on Soil 06/22/16 CCFCRD While there were differences among locations, there were generally no differences in soil health variables between the no-cover and cover crop treatments at individual locations. · · · · · · ·
Winter Cereal Rye Cover Crop Effect on Cash … 06/07/16 CCFCRD Farmers reported that in 49 of 53 site-years, properly managed cover crops had little to no negative effect on corn and soybean yield (and actually increased soybean yield in 7 site-years).
Fruit and Vegetable Production Data Collection … 05/10/16
Fruit and Vegetable Production Data Collection … 05/10/16 H In a Nutshell • Fifteen farms participated in fruit and vegetable production recordkeeping to date. • The purpose of the project was to create Iowa-specific production histories for: • producers to have baseline comparisons, • the advancement of crop insurance options, • and to provide information about typical Iowa production for lenders. • Actual yields exceeded FSA-NAP yield estimates for most crop categories. · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Pepper Seedlings in Soil Blocks and Plug Trays 02/04/16 H In a Nutshell • This was an informal trial to compare bell pepper production from seedlings started in soil blocks vs. plug trays. • Data were collected from 72 plants in each treatment; peppers were harvested at green and red stages. Key Findings • Though statistical analysis was not possible, pepper plants started in soil blocks had higher yield and number of green and red peppers per plant and fewer cull fruit. ·
Alternative Free Choice Minerals for Goats 12/10/15 LRD
Enterprise Budget for Cucumbers 12/09/15 HRD Three farmers provided enterprise budgets for cucumber production. • Cucumbers were grown in a heated greenhouse (Ann Franzenburg), an unheated high tunnel (Emma Johnson), and an open field (Jan Libbey). Key Findings • Labor was the largest expense for all farms, ranging from 56% of enterprise expenses to 93%. • Trellising and pruning were the biggest labor task for Ann, while harvesting and packing was the largest portion of labor for Emma and Jan. • Production in the heated greenhouse at Ann’s provided highest yield (lb fruit/ft2) and number of fruit per ft2, and also the highest net income per ft2 and per fruit. • Among the three farms, outdoor production at Jan’s had the highest net income per pound. · ·
Apple Cider Vinegar Supplementation in Feeder Pigs 12/08/15 LRD In a Nutshell • Apple cider vinegar has been long advocated for its health benefits and is gaining recognition as a health supplement for livestock. • Apple cider vinegar is held to being a health tonic that promotes beneficial gut bacteria, improves digestion of feedstuffs, enhances performance, and helps decrease parasite load. • Tom Frantzen supplemented three groups of pigs with apple cider vinegar and measured feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency and return over feed costs compared to pigs not supplemented. Key findings: • Pigs supplemented with apple cider vinegar were observed to have a sleeker coat, improved vitality and looked healthier than those not receiving apple cider vinegar. • Pigs supplemented with apple cider vinegar tended towards increased feed intake and average daily gains, higher carcass yields, better feed efficiency, and higher profits.
Bell Pepper Variety Trial – Olympus and … 12/07/15 HRD In a Nutshell • Five farmers compared two bell pepper varieties, Olympus and Revolution, to determine which produces better in Iowa’s climate. • Each farm planted four randomized pairs of research plots, each pair with 10-20 plants of each variety. Key Findings • Pepper yield was significantly different by farm, but treatment (variety) also had a significant effect on yield. Revolution yield was significantly higher than Olympus when all farms were analyzed together. • Revolution produced more pounds and number of peppers per ft2 and per plant than Olympus at three of five farms. The remaining two farms saw no difference in yield between the varieties. • Average plant yield of green bell peppers across all farms was 4.3 lb/plant for Revolution and 4.03 lb/plant for Olympus. • Plant spacing was different by farm, but end-of-season yield for green bell peppers ranged from 1.82 – 2.66 lb/ft2. · · · ·
Grazing Cover Crops for Winter Feed, 2015 Update 12/07/15 CCLRD In a Nutshell • Cover crops can provide a high-quality, low-cost feed during times when farmers would normally be feeding hay and other stored forages. • Dave and Meg Schmidt planted and grazed cover crops and crop residue to extend their grazing season and reduce hay expenses. • Over four winter seasons, they have maintained animal performance through feeding a combination of hay and winter grazing. Key findings: • Grazing cover crops and crop residue in late fall delayed the onset of regular hay feeding. • Cows maintained body condition and calves met average daily gain goals while grazing cover crops and crop residue. • Utilizing cover crops as forage allowed the Schmidts to feed less hay than previous years, while also increasing their herd size. • Graziers should consider entering into cost-share agreements with row crop neighbors to reduce cover crop establishment costs.
Corn Following Green Manure Cover Crops … 12/02/15 CCFCRD In a Nutshell • Extending and diversifying a crop rotation to include a small grain presents farmers with the opportunity to generate biological soil nitrogen using forage legume (green manure) cover crops seeded in the spring and summer. • Farmer-cooperator, Dick Sloan grew corn following red clover that was frost-seeded into a cereal rye seed crop and also after a mix of forage legumes and other species established midsummer after the cereal rye seed crop was harvested. Key Findings • In his second iteration of investigating these cropping systems, Dick improved his corn yields from the first time he tried this system in 2014. • In 2015, corn that followed red clover out-yielded corn that followed the mix. • Net returns were approximately $95 greater per acre when corn followed red clover compared to the mix.
Summer Squash Following Winter Rye With Strip … 11/30/15 CCHRD In a Nutshell • Fruit and Vegetable farmers want to use cover crops to control weeds, which reduces labor costs and competition with cash crops. • In tilled plots, two-foot wide strips of rye were incorporated prior to seeding. In no-till plots, summer squash was seeded into an overwintered stand of cereal rye that was scythed at maturity. Key Findings • Squash yield (lb) and number of squash produced were greater in tilled plots than in no-till plots. • Weeding the tilled plots took significantly more time during the first weeding of the season (July 8). • Survival rate of seedlings was not different between treatments on July 1, but plant survival by Sept. 25 was 72% in the till plots compared to 50% in the no-till plots. • Average pounds of squash produced per plant were not significantly different between treatments.
Timing of Nitrogen Supply to Corn from Spring … 11/30/15 CCFCRD In a Nutshell • Cultivation of cereal rye for cover crop seed offers the possibility of frost-seeding a legume into the standing rye crop in early spring, where the legume can produce biomass and fix N following rye harvest. • Farmer-cooperators Tim Sieren and Dick Sloan grew corn in rotation following cereal rye frost-seeded with red clover and compared this to corn grown using synthetic N fertilizer applications. • Tim and Dick invited Iowa State University graduate student Will Osterholz on to their farms to quantify N uptake by corn as well as two measures of N release from soil organic matter: net N mineralization and gross ammonification. Key findings • Red clover did not improve corn growth, N content or grain yield compared to synthetic N fertilizer. • Soil N mineralization rates in August tended to be higher with red clover compared to synthetic N fertilizer, but differences were not statistically different. • Fertilization with supplemental N at planting could provide corn with early season N before clover decomposition can provide sufficient N to the corn crop in late summer. · ·
Oat Variety and Fungicide Trials 11/30/15 FCRD In a Nutshell • Small grain crops, like oats, are seeing renewed interest by farmers in Iowa. Iowa was once a nationwide leader in oats production, but many farm families have not grown them for a generation or two. • 16 oat varieties were screened at two Iowa State University research farms. Additionally four varieties were included in a separate fungicide trial at one of the research farms. Key findings • Betagene, Deon, Badger and Natty varieties were among the top performers in terms of yield at both locations. These entries also scored low for incidence of crown rust. • Badger, Betagene, GM423, Goliath and Natty varieties met all of the quality specifications (except test weight) identified by food processors. • Fungicide improved test weight for two varieties (Badger and Rockford) while Beta glucan concentration and fat concentration were not affected. ·
Cereal Rye Cover Crop Termination Date Ahead of … 11/23/15 CCFCRD In a Nutshell • Delaying cover crop termination until soybean planting would allow for more biomass production by the cover crop in the spring presenting the opportunity for more environmental benefit. • Farmer-cooperators seeded soybeans 10-14 days after terminating a cereal rye cover crop and within 1 day of terminating the cover crop. Key findings • Jeremy Gustafson and Jack Boyer saw no difference in soybean yields with the two cover crop termination dates while Bob Lynch saw a small reduction with the late termination date. • Bob and Jack observed cereal rye residue in the late termination treatment to persist through the soybean growing season holding soil in place and reducing weed pressure. · ·
Are neonicotinoid seed treatments in soybean … 11/19/15 FCRD • Neonicotinoid seed treatments in soybean production are ubiquitous but recent evidence has called their benefit to yields and their ecological impact into question. • Farmer-cooperators compared soybean yields from soybeans of the same variety grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds and seeds not treated with a neonicotinoid. Key findings • At each location, there was no measured effect of seed treatment on soybean yield. • Given the lack of measured yield benefit, the economic practicality of neonicotinoid seed treatments can be questioned. · ·
Whole Farm Financial Project – An … 09/24/15 HRD 11 fruit and vegetable farms provided a profit-loss statement and simple balance sheet from FY 2013. • Five of the 11 farms are meeting their personal expectations for profitability. • Six of the 11 farms plan to someday earn 100% of their household income from the farm. • Farming experience ranged from 3 to 20 years. • No two farm financial strategies or situations are the same. This report serves as a starting point for profitability conversations, and for farmers to compare their own numbers with their peers
Winter Canola Used as a Cover Crop in Iowa 07/16/15 CCFCRD • Winter canola is a common oilseed crop grown in regions outside the Midwest. Due to its ability to overwinter, it may be a suitable candidate for use as a cover crop in Iowa crop production systems. • Winter canola was seeded at three dates in the late summer and early fall to assess growth, ground cover and nitrogen accumulation by the above ground biomass in two fall–spring cycles: 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. KEY FINDINGS • Winter canola seeded in early September produced the most growth and ground cover and accumulated the most N in the aboveground biomass in the fall. • Winter canola successfully overwintered when seeded in early September and mid-September in the 2012-2013 Cycle only. • Winter canola performance as a cover crop tended to decrease as seeding ·
Cover Crop Variety Trial 2014-2015 07/16/15 CCFCRD Cereal rye, oats and other cool-season, small grains grass species have been proven as effective cover crops in Iowa crop production systems. • Cooperators screened pure seedings and mixtures of grass, legume and brassica cover crops for ground cover and aboveground biomass production in small, hand-seeded plots across the state. KEY FINDINGS • Cereal rye and mustard tended to produce the most amount of fall ground cover. • Cereal rye and field pennycress were the only entries to consistently overwinter and produce spring growth. • Field pennycress may be a good option for those in corn-soybean systems looking to add diversity to their practice of cover cropping. · · · ·
Effect of Seeding Date on Cover Crop Performance 07/06/15 CCFC Cover crops are recognized for their ability to scavenge nitrogen and possibly improve soil characteristics in corn-soybean production systems. • Farmer-cooperator Jack Boyer investigated three different cereal rye cover crop seeding dates in his seed corn field. Cover crop performance was evaluated by assessing aboveground biomass as well as soil chemical and health characteristics using the Haney Test, a novel approach to soil testing. KEY FINDINGS • The two aerial seeding dates in August 2014 resulted in more cover crop growth in both Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 compared to the drill seeding date in September 2014. • The two aerial seeding treatments reduced soil nitrate concentration in the top six inches of the soil profile compared to the drill seeding and nocover treatment in Fall 2014; all cover crop treatments reduced soil nitrate concentration compared to the nocover treatment in Spring 2015. • Compared to the no-cover treatment, all cover crop treatments resulted in increased soil microbial activity in the spring as determined by the Solvita method in the Haney Test.
Winter Cereal Rye Cover Crop Effect on Cash … 05/13/15 CCFCRD Farmers reported that in 42 of 46 trials, properly managed cover crops had little or no negative effect on corn and soybean yield (and actually increased soybean yield in 4 trials). · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Once vs. Twice Daily Milking of Dairy Goats 05/08/15 LRD Milking once per day instead of the twice-daily standard reduces milk yield, but also greatly reduces labor and feed expense. • Animals milked only once per day require less feed, and reportedly have a lower mastitis risk. Milk allegedly has a lower somatic cell count and higher protein and fat concentration. KEY FINDINGS • Does milked once daily produced fewer pounds of milk, but the milk had slightly higher milk fat and protein concentrations, compared to does milked twice daily. • Does milked once daily consumed slightly less grain compared to does milked twice daily, but milking once daily greatly reduced labor requirements. • Does milked once daily had greater somatic cell counts compared to does milked twice daily, but this was not associated with any cases of clinical mastitis. • Lois Reichert found that does milking once daily improved quality of life, offering a nice option for a cheesemaking dairy with a small staff.
Improving Cool-Season Pastures with … 05/07/15 LRD Interseeding annuals into pastures increases forage diversity, quality, and quantity. • Bruce Carney developed seed mixtures and interseeded them into existing cool-season pastures. KEY FINDINGS • During this establishment year, few advantages were seen in grazing days or forage yield, but a baseline was established for future comparison. • Diverse seed mixtures vastly increased pasture diversity. • Timely precipitation is critical to forage and biomass production. • Grazing management to harvest or trample forage at the right time and to a proper degree is essential to feed both livestock and soil microbes.
Poultry Recordkeeping – 2014 05/05/15 LRD Poultry enterprises have low start-up costs, require little experience, and have fast turnaround compared to other livestock species. • Margins on poultry enterprises, however, are often low; broiler chickens and eggs have been referred to as “gateway” sales to get farmers’ market customers to become interested in bigger purchases. • Practical Farmers members offered to provide production and sales costs of broiler enterprises, to see what the finances really look like on long-standing operations. KEY FINDINGS • The Griffieons benefit from economies of scale, and while non-GMO feed is the biggest expense (over 50% of total costs), this feature allows them to ask a premium sale price. • The Wesseliuses have a very low-cost feed ration, and while processing is costly (36% of total costs), they save on labor and other expenses. • Feed and processing, the two biggest costs on each enterprise, are difficult to alter, but any reduction in costs will improve margins. ·
Pasture Monitoring 2014 – Troublesome Creek … 04/30/15 LRD Good management is essential to maintaining productive pastures and encouraging high performance. • Dave and Meg Schmidt tracked the management of their pastures, animal performance, and rates of gain. • 2014 featured good weather and improved rotational grazing, resulting in more animal grazing days and better calf growth. KEY FINDINGS • Managed grazing has improved animal health and gain. • Forage diversity and soil health can be improved with managed grazing. • Short-season annual forages provide livestock feed during key periods, when perennials are don’t.
Duck Breed Comparison 04/30/15 LRD While selective breeding has improved production of eggs or meat in different duck breeds, some are considered dual-purpose, producing both meat and eggs acceptably. • Given identical housing, environment, management, and feed, any differences should be due to breed of the ducks. • Which better fits the management style of the Fauxes and generates the best financial return? KEY FINDINGS • Muscovy ducks finished at a greater weight and consumed less feed, generating a positive net return. • Appleyard ducks weighed less but used more feed than Muscovys, but were much better foragers and may flourish in a lower-input system. • Muscovys better fit the Fauxes’ existing system and customer base, but the Appleyards may have a niche in highforage, low-management systems or for customers preferring “wilder” tasting meat.
Fly Monitoring for Grazing Cattle 2014 04/29/15 LRD Face and horn flies can damage livestock health and producer profits through the spread of disease and irritation to animals. • Cooperators counted flies on their cattle to determine efficacy of control methods and to identify degrees of fly load that negatively impact cattle. • Over time, reduction in fly load has been observed, seemingly due to selection of cattle and rotational grazing, along with some targeted fly control methods. KEY FINDINGS • Environmental factors (windspeed, humidity, temperature, cloud cover) did not seem to correlate with fly load. • Certain animals seem to be more prone to high fly loads; this may be due to color, genetics, or breed. • Cattle behavior (bunching, kicking, stomping, tail flicking) was not strongly associated with fly load, although fly load was below accepted economic threshold levels in 2014.
Fertilizer Effect on Yield and Quality of Corn … 04/27/15 FCLRD Specialty corn varieties are bred to express quality profiles that are more suitable for livestock feed than standard, conventional corn varieties. • The Gilberts investigated different fertilizer practices to improve productivity of a specialty corn variety they have deemed to possess a desirable quality profile. KEY FINDINGS • Nutrient analysis of grain samples is essential to properly balance diets. • Savings in hog diets can be accomplished when lysine concentration of corn is such that less soybean meal needs to be purchased from off-farm outlets.
Soybeans Show Little Response to Boron Fertilizer 04/20/15 FCRD Recent interest in micronutrients, such as boron, has farmers curious about yield impacts of in-season, foliar applications of these micronutrients to commodity crops. • Duane Johnson compared soybeans that received a foliar application of boron with those that received no boron. KEY FINDINGS • There was no measured effect of foliar boron fertilizer on soybean yield, thus the cost was not warranted.
CoolBot vs. Commercial Chilling Systems in … 04/01/15 HOERD Many fruit and vegetable farmers are building their own walk-in coolers to save money and be able to customize the cooler to fit their needs. • Window air conditioning units equipped with CoolBot systems have become a popular alternative to commercial chilling systems in coolers, because they are cheaper to install. • Energy use and temperature control was compared on three farms; two used AC/CoolBot systems, and one used a commercial chilling system. KEY FINDINGS • The walls and ceiling of a walk-in cooler should be air-tight, and should have a minimum R-value of 20. • Fiberglass insulation with a vapor barrier is not recommended for the primary internal material. Instead of fiberglass insulation with a vapor barrier, closed cell foam is recommended in order to avoid condensation and reduction of fiberglass R-value. • In this study, the AC/CoolBot system struggled to maintain temps below 40°F in the heat of the summer. · ·
Fruit and Vegetable Production Data Collection … 03/16/15 HRD
Fruit and Vegetable Production Data Collection … 03/11/15 HRD Thirteen farms participated in fruit and vegetable production recordkeeping to date. • The purpose of the project was to create Iowa-specific production histories for: • producers to have baseline comparisons, • the advancement of crop insurance options, • and to provide information about typical Iowa production for lenders. • Actual yields exceeded FSA-NAP yield estimates for most crop categories. · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Farm Metered Energy Analysis 03/01/15 OERD Energy markets are unstable and energy purchases can make up a large portion of farm expenditures. • The energy sources that power the majority of farm operations are based on fossil fuels and are some of the primary emitters of greenhouse gases. • Practical Farmers members tracked energy expenditures in order to establish an energy baseline and pinpoint “energy hogs.” Key Findings • For vegetable farms, electricity to power cold storage and gasoline for product transportation are areas of intensive energy use. • For crop and livestock farms, diesel for field operations and LP for grain drying are areas of intensive energy use. • Detailed records are necessary to establish a solid energy baseline, enabling farmers to implement energy conservation measures and/or alternative energy technologies. · · · · · · · · · · ·
Apple Cider Vinegar Supplementation of Goats … 02/01/15 LRD Apple cider vinegar, long praised for its beneficial effects on animal health, also is said to cause animals consuming it to have more female than male offspring. • Goat-owning farmer-researchers supplemented a subset of their animals with apple cider vinegar, either as a direct oral drench or as an addition to drinking water, and reported animal gain and condition, health considerations, and offspring gender. • Apple cider vinegar supplementation of dams did not result in more doe than buck kids being born the following spring, and had inconsistent effects on weight gain, body condition, and FAMACHA scores. KEY FINDINGS • Pregnant does given apple cider vinegar in 2013 had a lower percentage of doe kids than did does given water, at two farms. • FAMACHA scores and body condition scores did not consistently differ between animals given apple cider vinegar or water on Dawn Anderson’s farm, though youngstock given apple cider vinegar had higher average daily gains than those given water. • Kathy Rose found no differences in average daily gain between doelings given apple cider vinegar or no supplementation, though apple cider vinegar was given as an attempt to aid does already known to be poorer-performing. ·
Pasture Monitoring 2014 – Bobolink Prairie Farm 02/01/15 LRD Cattle graziers work to improve pasture yield and quality to maintain healthy herds of productive cattle. • Nathan and Sarah Anderson have worked for five years to reclaim pasture acres and improve existing pastures, monitoring pastures for species diversity and cattle grazing days. • In 2014 they continued a trend of increasing pounds of calf raised, increasing total pasture acreage, and improving forage species diversity. KEY FINDINGS • Forage species diversity (number of species and number of desired prairie species) was greater in 2014 than 2013 or 2010. • Total grazed acreage and total herd size were greater in 2014 than 2013 or 2010. • Calf average daily gain did not differ from 2013, but calves were tracked for a shorter period of time in 2014 than 2013. Total pounds of calf produced was greater in 2014 than 2013 or 2010 primarily because more calves were raised.
Pasture Monitoring 2014 – Frog Hollow Farm 02/01/15 LRD Seeding new species into existing pastures improves pasture diversity and forage quality and quantity. • The Hopkins have added new forages to their pastures and tracked the diversity and rotations of their grazing meat goats. • Pasture quality was adequate for mature and young animals—based on doe condition and kid gain—despite increasing the stocking rate from the previous year. KEY FINDINGS • Frost-seeding legumes and herbals successfully introduced new species into existing pastures. • After two seasons of frost-seeding new species and rotational grazing, the proportion of legumes in pastures has increased. • After two seasons of frost-seeding new species and rotational grazing, animal-days per acre and kid gain have increased.
Finishing Hogs on Small Grains 12/08/14 LRD Organic hogs typically grow slower and are less efficient than conventional hogs. High-fiber diets high in small grains are common in organic production but may be less efficient compared to corn-soybean diets. • Tom Frantzen and family fed groups of similar hogs either an organic cornbased diet or a small grain diet where succotash replaced corn. • Small grain-fed hogs grew less quickly and efficiently, but carcass price per lb was similar between diet groups, and feed price per lb was less for the small grain diet. KEY FINDINGS • Feed consumption and cost was greater for small grain-fed hogs, while weight gain was lower. • Small grain-fed hog carcasses were slightly smaller but of comparable quality to corn-fed hog carcasses. • Hog feed is a viable use for small grains produced in organic crop rotations, as it is low-cost and produces comparable finished carcasses to cornfed hogs. ·
Effect of Compost Extract on Qualitative Soil … 12/07/14 HRD Compost extract (compost steeped in water, then sieved) is a popular soil amendment to increase beneficial biota and increase yields. Two treatment levels of compost extract were applied to carrots on two farms to determine impact on yield and soil microbes. KEY FINDINGS: • Compost extract did not impact carrot yield at either farm. • Compost extract did not impact soil biota (as measured by a Qualitative Soil Analysis). • Carrots from the High compost extract treatment at Jason Jones farm were significantly longer than untreated plots. • Carrots from the plots treated with compost extract at Siobhan Danreis’ farm showed significantly higher degrees Brix. ·
Manure Additives Comparison in Corn Production 12/07/14 FCRD Applying manure or fertilizer with a nitrogen stabilizer has been identified as a practice farmers can use to reduce the potential for nonpoint source pollution of surface waters. • Farmer-cooperator Tim Sieren assessed the effect on corn yields of liquid swine manure and anhydrous ammonia applied with commercially available nitrogen stabilizers. KEY FINDINGS • Corn yields were the same with and without a nitrogen stabilizer. • The amount spent on N per bushel of corn produced was significantly greater when a nitrogen stabilizer was used
Summer Squash Following Winter Rye 12/07/14 CCRD Fruit and Vegetable farmers want to use cover crops to control weeds on their farms to reduce labor costs and competition with cash crops. • Cereal rye cover crops have been mulch-killed to control weeds in cash crops. KEY FINDINGS • A late-terminated, no-till cover crop negatively affected summer squash yield.
Mulching Comparison for Watermelon & Sweet … 12/06/14 HRD Fruit and vegetable farmers use mulch to control weed competition plus increase moisture retention for cash crops. • Many fruit and vegetable farmers use plastic mulch but concerns about its environmental sustainability have farmers wanting to test other mulch types. KEY FINDINGS • In 2012, both mulches reduced weeds compared to bare ground and the plastic mulch resulted in greatest sweet potato yields. • In 2013, watermelon production was similar in the paper mulch and control plots. • In 2014, sweet potato production trended higher in the plastic mulch although not statistically greater. The paper mulch and control were similar again but the paper mulch was shredded due to extreme weather leaving little mulch. · ·
Are neonicotinoid seed treatments in soybean … 12/06/14 FCRD Neonicotinoid seed treatments in soybean production are ubiquitous but recent evidence has called their benefit to yields and their ecological impact into question. • Farmer-cooperators compared soybean yields from soybeans of the same variety grown from neonicotinoid-treated seeds and seeds not treated with a neonicotinoid. KEY FINDINGS • At each location, there was no measured effect of seed treatment on soybean yield. • Furthermore, the economic practicality of neonicotinoid seed treatments can be questioned given the lack of measured yield benefit. · ·
Baseline Bee Data Collection at Two Farms 12/06/14 HRD Pollinators are a critical component of agricultural production, and the populations of bees are declining. Some farms are implementing bee-friendly pollinator habitat, and are curious what effect their efforts have on local populations. • Pollinators were collected in bee bowls from different habitats on two farms. KEY FINDINGS • Nearly 1,300 pollinators were collected. • The most common species at each farm were from family Halictidae (Lasioglossum Dialictus and Agpostemon virenscens). • The prairie garden and unburned prairie habitats had the most diversity of pollinators (number of species) at each farm (26 and 17 species, respectively). • The largest number of pollinators (404) were collected in the pepper field at Mustard Seed Farm. ·
Green Manure Cover Crops Established with Small … 12/05/14 CCFCRD Extending and diversifying a crop rotation to include a small grain presents farmers with the opportunity to also include green manure cover crops. • Three farmer-cooperators grew a small grain + red clover and a small grain + cover crop mix preceding corn in their crop rotations. KEY FINDINGS • Red clover frost-seeded with the small grain put on more aboveground biomass and contained more N than the cover crop mix seeded after small grain harvest on one farm. • Corn yields following red clover were greater than those following the cover crop mix at only one farm. • If sufficiently terminated, red clover and the cover crop mix preceding corn in rotation can result in yields comparable to county yield averages. · ·
Nitrogen Replacement Value of Red Clover 12/05/14 CCFCRD Extending and diversifying a crop rotation to include a small grain presents farmers with the opportunity to also include a forage legume that could possibly reduce the need for synthetic N fertilizer. • Cooperator Tim Sieren grew corn in rotation following cereal rye frostseeded with red clover and corn in rotation following cereal rye alone. • Tim also applied a low and high N rate to the corn following rye + red clover and the corn following rye alone. KEY FINDINGS • Corn following rye and red clover and receiving 100 lb N/ac yielded the same as corn following rye alone that received 143 and 190 lb N/ac. • This was enough of a reduction in applied N to significantly reduce the amount of money Tim spent on N fertilizer per bushel of corn produced.
Side-dressing Corn following a Winter Rye Cover … 12/05/14 CCFCRD Using cover crops and side-dressing nitrogen fertilizer is a common bundle being investigated by Iowa farmers concerned about soil health, water quality and return on investment of cover crops. • Cooperators grew corn following a winter rye cover crop and applied a low and high rate of N fertilizer in a sidedress application. KEY FINDINGS • In only one of six site-years did the high side-dress N rate result in greater corn yields. • In most cases, by not applying the high N rate the cooperators nearly recouped the cost of establishing the cover crop with savings in N fertilizer. · ·
Quick Turnaround Cover Crops for Horticulture 12/05/14 CCHRD Fruit and Vegetable farmers use cover crops to improve nutrient cycling and control weeds for increased production efficiency. • Summer cover crops can be challenge due to dry conditions. • Four farms evaluated summer cover crops to determine aboveground biomass production, carbon and nitrogen produced, effects on subsequent cash crop germination and effects on subsequent weed seed germination. KEY FINDINGS • Summer-seeded cover crops produced between 192 and 14,157 lb of biomass per acre across the farms. Species selection, location and days of cover crop growth tended to dictate biomass production. • Not surprisingly, legume species contained more N than nonlegumes, though buckwheat also tended to contain a large amount of N. · · ·
Worm Casting Application Methods and Impact on … 12/04/14 HRD Worm castings, or vermicompost, are a common addition to potting soil mix and greenhouse bedding, and are recommended for use with nearly any plant • Castings can be added at seeding or transplant, used to side-dress during the growing season, incorporated to compost piles or vegetable beds, or steeped as a compost tea and added during watering or as a foliar spray • The objectives of this project were to determine whether casting additions or application method increased yield of fall cabbage. • While differences are seen with other plants in the literature, no differences were seen here ·
Goat Grazing to Reduce Parasite Loads 12/03/14 LRD Internal parasites are an important issue in goat production, and parasite resistance to drugs is prevalent. • Grazing management, including frequent rotations and providing browse, reduces the likelihood that goats ingest larvae. • Reductions in FAMACHA score and some fecal egg counts were observed following grazing interseeded pastures. KEY FINDINGS • At Frog Hollow Farm, FAMACHA scores did not change throughout the grazing season, but fecal egg counts were lower after interseeded pastures had been grazed. • At Girl and a Goat Farm, FAMACHA scores and some parasite fecal egg counts were lower in goats grazing seeded pastures. ·
Energy Use and Cost of Starting Seedlings at … 12/02/14 HOERD Three farms recorded the energy used during seed starting for the 2013 season. • For each plant started, energy cost ranged from $0.002 - $0.033. • Commercial grow lights were the most energy intensive item used by any farmer in the study. • Though energy efficiency improvements could be made, farmers found that starting their own seeds was cost-effective. · ·
Winter Greens Production: Sales Revenue and … 11/03/14 HLFOE We compare the energy use of winter high tunnel production to the product revenue during the first season of operation. • Greenhouses and high tunnels allow farmers to extend the growing season. • Greenhouses and high tunnels can increase revenue per square foot. • Managed properly, the increased revenue can offset the expense of additional infrastructure. • In the first winter of production, Lee’s Greens was able to keep their revenue above their energy costs. • Propane was the bulk of the energy expenditure.
Grazing Cover Crops for Winter Feed 11/01/14 CCLRD Feeding cows during the winter is often expensive, requiring investment in stored feeds like hay and extra labor from the producer. • In addition to the numerous benefits of cover crops for row crop farmers, livestock can graze the forage, providing a high-quality and low-cost feed during times of low feed supplies. • Dave and Meg Schmidt planted cover crops and grazed crop residues to reduce expenses and keep their animals out on pasture. • Over three winter seasons, they have maintained animal performance and are starting to see reduced winter feed costs. KEY FINDINGS • Planting cover crops and utilizing crop residue in the late fall has delayed the onset of regular hay feeding. • Calf average daily gain over the winter has improved over the years, implying better nutrition, management, and genetics. • Feeding hay can be successfully offset by cover crops and crop residues.
Hog Feeder Adjustment – Rosmann Family Farm 11/01/14 LRD Organic hogs typically grow slower and are less efficient than conventional hogs. Differences in management may account for some of this. • The Rosmanns worked with ISU swine specialists to implement three levels of feeder management (once-weekly and twice-daily adjustment, and hand-fed). • Hogs under once-weekly and twicedaily adjustment had similar growth and production parameters, with a slight advantage to twice-daily. KEY FINDINGS • Twice-daily adjustment resulted in slightly better feed efficiencies than hogs under once-weekly adjustment. However it required more labor. • Adjusting feeders more frequently provides some feed cost savings and improves the efficiency of gain in finishing organic hogs. · ·
Grazing Cover Crops on Corn Ground 11/01/14 CCLRD Cover crops provide a high-quality and low-cost feed during times of low feed supplies. • Beef graziers worked with neighboring row crop farmers to plant cover crops and monitored grazing value. • Grazing cover crops extended the grazing time on crop stubble fields and reduced the amount of stored feeds required. KEY FINDINGS • Soil compaction was not increased following cattle grazing cover crops. • Cover crops provide reasonablypriced forage for grazing livestock, protect the soil for crop farmers, and allow graziers to rest their pastures longer in the spring.
Initial Summary of Small Grains Trial – … 09/01/14 LRD · ·
Internal Parasites in Organic Hog Production … 09/01/14 LRD Organic hogs typically grow slower and are less efficient than conventional hogs. Even a low level of parasite infection can reduce feed efficiency and gain in growing hogs, especially finishing organic hogs which cannot be treated with dewormers. • Hogs treated with IvermectinTM were raised side-by-side with untreated hogs, and were fed the same diet. • Treated and untreated hogs did not differ in feed consumption, gain, or efficiency. KEY FINDINGS • Feed consumption, total weight gain, feed-to-gain ratio, and days to finish were similar between treated and untreated hogs. • Finishing organic hogs may have residual parasite protection from their dams, which may be treated with Ivermectin. • Internal parasites are not a likely source of the reduced efficiency seen in organic as compared to conventional hogs. · ·
Cover Crop Variety Trial 2013-2014 08/19/14 CCRD Cover crop entries were hand seeded at locations into standing corn and soybeans and evaluated for fall ground cover, spring ground cover, and spring biomass production. KEY FINDINGS • Cereal rye and mustard tended to produce the most amount of fall ground cover. • Sufficient rainfall following cover crop seeding is necessary for fall cover crop growth and overwintering potential. • Cereal rye was the only entry to successfully overwinter and produce spring growth and remains a strong cover crop candidate even in the face of a challenging winter. · · · · · · ·
Herbicide Carryover Injury to Cover Crops 06/01/14 CCRD
Winter Cereal Rye Cover Crop Effect on Cash … 03/01/14 CCFCRD
Fruit and Vegetable Production Data … 02/01/14 HRD
Fruit and Vegetable Production Data Collection 02/01/14 HRD
Interseeding winter rye with red clover 01/09/14 CCFCRD
Winter Feed Monitoring 01/01/14 LRD
Pasture monitoring — Troublesome Creek Cattle … 01/01/14 LRD
Pasture monitoring — Anderson Farm 01/01/14 LRD
Alternative Swine Rations 01/01/14 LRD
Non-GMO Corn Strip Trial: Yield and Feed Value 01/01/14 LRD
Aerial seeding versus drill seeding cover … 12/31/13 CCFCRD
Pasture monitoring 2013—Frog Hollow Farm 12/01/13 LRD
Fly Monitoring for Grazing Cattle 12/01/13 LRD
Apple Cider Vinegar Supplementation of Goats 11/01/13 LRD
Grazing Cover Crops 11/01/13 CCLRD
Internal Parasites in Organic Hog Production … 11/01/13 LRD
Poultry recordkeeping 11/01/13 LRD
Bell pepper variety trial: California Wonder … 11/01/13 HRD
Lease Considerations for Grazing Cover Crops on … 08/01/13 CCLRD
Cover Crop Variety Trial 2012-2013 08/01/13 CCRD · · · · · · · · ·
Aster Yellows in Garlic 08/01/13 HRD · · · · · · · · · · ·
IDALS Pesticide Bureau Case Files for Alleged … 07/01/13 H
Winter Rye Cover Crop Effects on Soil 04/01/13 CCRD
Grazing Cover Crops Fact Sheet 02/01/13 CCFCLRD ·
Non-GMO Corn Strip Trial Yield and Feed Value 01/10/13 FCRD
Flea Beetle Control in Eggplant 01/09/13 HRD ·
Documenting the Improvement of a Perennial Pasture 01/08/13 LRD
Fly Monitoring for Grazing Cattle – … 01/05/13 LRD ·
Nutrient composition of poultry from different … 01/03/13 LRD · · · · · · · ·
Feeding trial Succotash swine 01/02/13 LRD ·
Farm Energy Production and Use Between Two Iowa … 01/01/13 OERD
Non-GMO Corn Strip Trials Yield and Quality 10/23/12 FCRD ·
Comparison of Soil Quality Indicators among … 03/14/12 FCLRD · · · · · · · ·
Winter Rye Cover Crop Effect on Cash Crop … 03/07/12 CCFCRD · · · · · · · · · ·
Cover Crops Double Duty Cover and Small Grains 03/03/12 CCFCRD
The prevention of ancillary roots for increased … 02/06/12 HRD · ·
Aphid Resistant versus Susceptible Soybean … 02/05/12 FCRD · · ·
Blue Gate high tunnels record keeping project, … 02/05/12 HRD ·
Local Foods Project 02/04/12 LFRD · · · · · · · · ·
PFI Local Food Study 02/01/12 LFRD · · · · · · · · ·
Comparison of steady-state water-infiltration … 02/01/12 FCLRD · · · · · ·
Soybean planting date impact on yield in … 01/31/12 FCRD
Role of Cover Crops in Converting Perennial … 01/31/12 CCHRD
Low Trypsin-Inhibition Soybean Demonstration 01/28/12 FCRD
Non-toxic, physical flea beetle controls, year 2 01/28/12 HRD
Monitoring winter cattle diets 08/05/11 LRD ·
Assessing Tillage Radish for Weed Control in … 06/09/11 CCHRD ·
Blue Gate Farms High Tunnels Take 3 02/09/11 HRD ·
Comparison of Steady State Water Infiltration … 02/08/11 LRD · · · · · · · · · ·
Effectiveness of White Mustard on Spring Weeds 02/07/11 CCHRD
Aphid Resistant (AR) Versus Susceptible (SC) … 02/04/11 FCRD · · · ·
Soil Quality Indicators Among Different Farming … 02/04/11 LRD · · · · · · · · · · ·
Comparison of Stocker Gains from Grazing … 01/14/11 LRD ·
Non-toxic, Physical Flea Beetle Controls 01/04/11 HRD
Tillage Radish to Control Weeds in Horticulture … 11/03/10 CCHRD
Blue Gate Farms High Tunnels Take 2 02/12/10 HRD ·
Tomato Support Systems for Heirloom Varieties 02/11/10 HRD · · · · ·
Aphid Resistance in Organic Soybean Production 02/10/10 FCRD
Heirloom Tomato Grafting 02/09/10 HRD
Comparison of High-methionine Maize 02/08/10 FCRD · · · ·
Subsoil Heat in a Greenhouse 02/07/10 HOERD ·
Season Extension in a Wood-Heated Structure 02/05/10 HOERD ·
Establishing Red Clover, Hairy Vetch and … 02/04/10 CCFCRD
Season Extension Small Potatoes Farm 02/03/10 HRD ·
Comparison of Poultry Breeds 02/02/10 LRD · · ·
Bioenergy Diversity from Sustainable Systems … 02/01/10 OERD · · ·
High Tunnels Are They Lucrative? 02/01/09 HRD ·
PFI Flame Cultivation Research in Corn – … 02/11/08 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
Weeds and Cover Crops 02/10/08 CCFCRD · · · · ·
Flax as Niche Crop 02/09/08 FCRD · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Oat Crown Rust Vs. Biodiversity 02/08/08 FCRD
Seed Treatments 02/07/08 FCRD · · ·
Evolving Our System – What Didn’t … 02/06/08 FCRD ·
Protecting Sweet Corn from the Corn Earworm … 02/05/08 HRD ·
Fitting Flax in the Rotation 02/04/08 FCRD ·
Weed Management in Flax Production On-farm Trials 02/03/08 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
Let Sleeping Weeds Lie 02/02/08 FCRD ·
Hoophouses and Composting – A Good Match? 02/01/08 LRD · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Breeding Corn for Sustainable Agriculture 02/03/07 FCRD · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Combination Treatment for Cucumber Beetles 02/02/07 HRD · ·
The Research Alliance for Farrowing Project 02/01/07 LRD
Low Linolenic Oil Organic Soybeans 02/02/06 FCRD ·
Matching the Hybrid and the Year 02/01/06 FCRD ·
Triticale – A Step Towards Diversity 02/01/05 FCRD · ·
Biological Control of Soybean Aphid 02/10/04 FCRD
Corn Breeding for Quality 02/09/04 FCRD ·
Cover Crops with Reconfigured Ridge-till 02/08/04 CCFCRD ·
Fertility Trials 02/07/04 FCRD ·
Klinge/Tidwell Cropping Systems Analysis 02/06/04 FCRD ·
Thompson Cropping System Analysis 02/05/04 FCRD · · ·
Triticale – Is This My Beautiful … 02/04/04 FCRD · ·
Cucumber Beetle Management 02/03/04 HRD · ·
Alternative Parasite Management – Are We … 02/02/04 LRD ·
Oats in Swine Rations 02/01/04 LRD · · · · · · ·
Corn Variety Trials 02/06/03 FCRD
Fertility Trials, Field Crops 02/05/03 FCRD · · ·
Fertility Trials, Vegetable Crops 02/04/03 HRD · ·
Weed Management 02/03/03 CCFCRD ·
Parasite Research 02/02/03 LRD · · · ·
Herd Health 02/01/03 LRD
Assorted Questions 02/08/02 FCRD · · ·
Fertility Paradigms 02/07/02 FCRD · · · · · · · ·
Organic Soybeans Production Budget 02/06/02 FCRD
Variety Comparisons 02/05/02 FCRD · · · ·
Weeds – Alternative Approaches 02/04/02 FCRD · · · · ·
Veggies Varieties, Fertilization, and Planting 02/03/02 HRD · · · ·
Composting Hoophouse Manure – Is it Worth … 02/02/02 LRD · ·
Biosolids – Who Pays? 02/01/02 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
1999 Organic Soybean Production Budget 02/12/01 FCRD
Fertility Paradigms 02/11/01 FCRD · · · · · · · ·
Manure and Compost 02/10/01 FCRD · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Nitrogen and Seed Treatment Trials 02/09/01 FCRD · · · · · · · ·
Starter Fertilizer 02/08/01 FCRD ·
Strip Intercropping – Walking and Jumping … 02/07/01 FCRD · ·
Variety and Planting Trials 02/06/01 FCRD · · · · ·
Flaming for Weeds 02/05/01 HRD · ·
Farm Economic Analysis 02/04/01 HRD ·
Cucumber Beetle vs Tedesco 02/03/01 HRD
ZJ Farm Organic Wormer Project 02/02/01 LRD ·
Grazing Plus – What? 02/01/01 LRD ·
Fertility Paradigms 02/11/00 FCRD · · ·
IPM and Seed Trials 02/10/00 FCRD · · ·
Cropping Systems 02/09/00 FCRD · · ·
Nitrogen 02/08/00 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Other Fertility Research 02/07/00 FCRD · · · · · · · · · · ·
Strip Intercropping – Taking Advantage 02/06/00 FCRD · ·
Variety and Planting Trials 02/05/00 FCRD ·
CSA Farm Economic Analysis 02/04/00 HRD ·
Mulch Ado About Onions (and Potatoes) 02/03/00 HRD · · ·
Grass-Based Dairy Farming in the Upper Midwest 02/02/00 LRD
Alternative Parasite Control in Dairy Goats, An … 02/01/00 LRD ·
Food Grade Fertilizers 02/13/99 FCRD
Fungal Control of Corn Borer – Year Three 02/12/99 FCRD · · · · ·
IPM and Planting Trials 02/11/99 FCRD · · ·
Manure Trials 02/10/99 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
More Fertility Trials 02/09/99 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Multiple Treatment Variety Trials 02/08/99 FCRD
Multiple Treatment Weed and Planting Trials 02/07/99 FCRD · · · · ·
Organic and Conventional Corn 02/06/99 FCRD ·
Strip Harvesting to Manage Potato Leafhopper in … 02/05/99 FCRD · · · ·
Strip Intercropping 02/04/99 FCRD · · ·
Weed Management Trials 02/03/99 FCRD · ·
Stream Monitoring on the Norman Borlaug Farm 02/02/99 LRD
Why Holstein Heifers 02/01/99 LRD ·
Crop Varieties and Engineered Genetics 02/14/98 FCRD ·
Deep Banding – One Year Later 02/13/98 FCRD · · ·
First Year Experience with Organic Corn 02/12/98 FCRD ·
Fungal Control of Corn Borer – Year Two 02/11/98 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Livestock Manure – Crop Response and … 02/10/98 FCRD · · · ·
Manure Source Trial at the Ken Rosmann Farm 02/09/98 FCRD
More Planting Trials 02/08/98 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Oats and Seed Firmers 02/07/98 FCRD · · ·
Optimizing Biotic Mortality to Reduce … 02/06/98 FCRD · · · · · ·
Specialty Crop Production Systems 02/05/98 FCRD · · ·
Strip Intercropping Life on the Edge 02/04/98 FCRD · · ·
Tillage and Weeds 02/03/98 FCRD · · ·
Time Calving to Suit Your Circumstances 02/02/98 LRD ·
First Year Experience with Hoophouse Hogs 02/01/98 LRD
Deep Placement Nutrients in Minimum Tillage … 02/16/97 FCRD ·
Corn Borer Control with the Fungus Beauveria 02/15/97 FCRD · · · · · ·
Improving IPM 02/14/97 FCRD · ·
IPM Projects Learning to Work with the … 02/13/97 FCRD · · ·
My Experience with IPM and Biological Control … 02/12/97 FCRD ·
N and Manure 02/11/97 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Planting Trials 02/10/97 FCRD · · ·
Rootworms in Strip Intercropping 02/09/97 FCRD · ·
Strip Intercropping Yields and “Bugs” 02/08/97 FCRD · · ·
Testing the Fungus Beauveria on Corn Borer … 02/07/97 FCRD · · · · ·
Trichogramma Wasps for European Corn Borer at … 02/06/97 FCRD
Variety Trials 02/05/97 FCRD · ·
Weed Management 02/04/97 FCRD · · ·
Hazelnut Establishment 02/03/97 HRD · ·
Learning How to Use Management-Intensive … 02/02/97 LRD ·
Alfalfa as a Feed Supplement for Finishing Hogs 02/01/97 LRD ·
Berseem Clover Before Corn 02/17/96 CCFCRD ·
Biological Control of Alfalfa Weevil – 1 02/16/96 FCRD · ·
Biological Control of Alfalfa Weevil – 2 02/15/96 FCRD · ·
Biological Control of Corn Borer 02/14/96 FCRD
Biologicals 02/13/96 FCRD ·
Deep Banding 02/12/96 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Manure and Planter Row Fertilizer 02/11/96 FCRD ·
Other Seed and Seeding Trials 02/10/96 FCRD · · ·
Purchased Manure 02/09/96 FCRD · · ·
Strip Intercropping 02/08/96 FCRD · · · · · ·
Using the Late Spring Test 02/07/96 FCRD · · ·
Weed Management Trials 02/06/96 FCRD · · · · ·
Hazelnut Establishment 02/05/96 HRD · · ·
Trees for Biodiversity 02/04/96 HRD · · ·
Learning When to Calve in a Grass-Based Dairy 02/03/96 LRD ·
Rotational Grazing at Neely-Kinyon 02/02/96 LRD ·
Barley Versus Corn Based Hog Rations 02/01/96 LRD · · ·
Nitrogen Management Resources 02/14/95 FCRD
Nitrogen Management Using Ridge Tillage 02/13/95 FCRD
Banded Fertilizers 02/12/95 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
Biologicals and Unconventional Products 02/11/95 FCRD · · · · ·
Corn Population Trials 02/10/95 FCRD ·
Miscellaneous Trials 02/09/95 FCRD · · · · ·
Narrow Strip Intercropping 02/08/95 FCRD ·
Nitrogen 02/07/95 FCRD ·
Tillage 02/06/95 FCRD · · · · ·
Weed Management 02/05/95 FCRD · · · · ·
Forage Quality and Returns from Grazing 02/04/95 LRD ·
Transition to Grazing for Dairy 02/03/95 LRD ·
Pasture Versus Feedlot for Dairy Heifers 02/02/95 LRD
Barley-Based Hog Ration vs. a Corn Based Ration 02/01/95 LRD ·
Manure Trials 02/08/94 FCRD · · ·
Miscellaneous Trials 02/07/94 FCRD · · · · ·
Nitrogen 02/06/94 FCRD ·
Other Fertilizer Trials 02/05/94 FCRD · · · · ·
Starter and Fertilizer Placement Trials 02/04/94 FCRD · · · · · · · ·
Tillage Trials 02/03/94 FCRD · · ·
Weed Management Trials 02/02/94 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Grazing 02/01/94 LRD ·
Biological Soil Amendments 02/11/93 FCRD
Forage, Cover Cropping, and Weed Management 02/10/93 CCFCRD · · ·
Late Season Stalk Nitrate Test 02/09/93 FCRD
Manure Trials 02/08/93 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
Narrow Strip Intercropping 02/07/93 FCRD · · · · · · · ·
Narrow Strip Intercropping 02/06/93 FCRD · · · ·
Nitrogen 02/05/93 FCRD · · · · ·
Other Fertility Trials 02/04/93 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Starter Fertilizer Trials 02/03/93 FCRD · · · · ·
Tillage Trials 02/02/93 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Weed Trials 02/01/93 FCRD · · · ·
Weed Management in Ridge Tillage 02/09/92 FCRD ·
Cover Crops 02/08/92 CCFCRD ·
Manure 02/07/92 FCRD · · ·
Narrow Strip Intercropping 02/06/92 FCRD · · ·
Nitrogen 02/05/92 FCRD · · · · · ·
Other Trials of Interest 02/04/92 FCRD · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Phosphorus and Potassium and Deep Banding 02/03/92 FCRD · · · · ·
Starter Fertilizers 02/02/92 FCRD · · · · · · · · ·
Weed Management Trials 02/01/92 FCRD
More on Narrow Strip Intercropping 02/08/91 FCRD ·
Cover Crop Trials 02/07/91 CCRD
Manure 02/06/91 FCRD ·
Nitrogen Trials 02/05/91 FCRD · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Oat Trials 02/04/91 FCRD · · · · ·
Other Fertility Trials 02/03/91 FCRD · · · · · · ·
Tillage 02/02/91 FCRD · ·
Weed Trials 02/01/91 FCRD · · · · · ·
Cover Crops 02/06/90 CCFCRD ·
Nitrogen Experiments 02/05/90 FCRD
Other Fertility Demonstrations 02/04/90 FCRD · ·
Other PFI Trials 02/03/90 FCRD ·
Tillage Trials 02/02/90 FCRD · ·
Weed Control Trials 02/01/90 FCRD ·
Biological Additions 02/08/89 FCRD
Fall Legume Cover Crops 02/07/89 CCFCRD ·
Herbicide Experiments 02/06/89 FCRD · · · · · ·
Insecticide 02/05/89 FCRD
Nitrogen Experiments 02/04/89 FCRD · · · · · · · ·
Nutrient Tie Up 02/03/89 FCRD
Side Dress Liquid Manure 02/02/89 FCRD · · · · ·
Weed Counts 02/01/89 FCRD