Midwest Cover Crop Associate
Alisha Bower joined the PFI team as the Midwest Cover Crop Associate in the first days of 2017. Her work supports cover crops and small grains programs and involves grant tracking and reporting, event planning, data collection and management, and communications.
A native Wisconsinite, Alisha was raised on a small hobby farm in Southwest Wisconsin’s picturesque Driftless region. She attended the University of Minnesota Twin Cities majoring in Political Science and Spanish, then returned to school for her Master of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin Madison, focusing her studies on nonprofit administration and designing and managing research projects in agriculture and food systems. While working on her Masters she served as a Project Coordinator at the Integrated Pest Management Institute of North America and collected on-farm data from diversified organic vegetable operations. After completing her graduate degree, she moved to Lima, Peru for a brief internship with the USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service where she paused between bowls of ceviche and lomo saltado to interact with producers, agribusiness representatives, and policy makers to support U.S. farmers’ and ranchers’ interests abroad.
After work, Alisha enjoys singing show tunes while gardening, fermenting anything remotely edible (or drinkable!), and biding her time until her next international adventure by reading books that explore different cultures.
After taking a break in May we got back onto our monthly small grains shared learning call on June 9. One of our pilot program farmers from Blooming Prairie, Minnesota, Mark Ditlevson, took the floor at the beginning of the call to discuss his fungicide and fertilizer regime for his small grains and his set up for harvest, which is right around the corner.
Mark planted 300 acres of small grains to harvest this year. He has both winter small grains (wheat and cereal rye) and spring ones (wheat and oats). All of them were planted after soybeans, an early maturity variety to allow optimum planting date for the winter small grains to maximize winter survival. About half of his acres are already under contract to go to Albert Lea for seed. For the other half he’s aiming for a miller – which means he needs to achieve food grade test weight and protein levels and pass strict toxin tests for diseases and crop protectant residues (particularly herbicides). The following is his playbook for growing a high quality small grains crop that meets seed and milling market specifications.
Field Passes – Fungicides, Herbicides and Growth Regulators
Phil Needham is Mark’s small grains guru. He follows the Needham plan for “managing your way to higher profits” which are modeled after European wheat cultivation techniques that yield 150-200 bushels per acre. This year Mark has done/will do the following field operations:
|Winter Small Grains (wheat, cereal rye)||Spring Small Grains (wheat, oats)|
|Pre-planting or when over-wintering plants green up||15 gallons of 32%||180 lbs P & K, broadcast|
|V4-5||7 oz. Palisade® growth regulator and 4 oz. of Quilt® fungicide.||7 oz. Palisade® growth regulator, 4 oz. of Quilt® fungicide and 2, 4-D|
|Joining, plants 10-12 inches tall||
10-20 gallons of 32%
10 oz. Headline® fungicide and 7 oz. Palisade® growth regulator
7-8 oz. fungicide (product TBD)
While farmers have been getting busy planting, we PFI staff have been getting to work writing up resources to make sure the 2017 season is the best yet for cover crops. Check out these three NEW resources for farmers and crop advisers on the latest recommendations for cover crop selection and best management practices.
This fun, interactive sheet guides the user through the decision of what cover crop will work best in their operation. Following a series of yes or no questions about cover crop planting method and date leads the user to recommendations for cover crop varieties and seeding rates that will fit with their equipment and operation.
By now, small grains have been planted and farmers have turned their attention to planting corn, and later to soybeans, but farmers must remember to continue to monitor small grains development during this busy planting time in order to achieve good quality grain. The March 10 shared learning call focused on best practices for fertilizer, herbicide and fungicide application as the three main management activities for small grains in the spring. The following are tips from our presenters David Weisberger, graduate researcher at ISU studying oat agronomy, and Bruce Roskens, Director of Crop Sciences at Grain Millers.
Fertilize pre or at planting to avoid lodging.
Small grain crops do not require as much nitrogen fertilizer as their large grain cousin, corn, and applying fertilizer at the wrong time can cause more problems than it solves. For oats, applying fertilizer at or after V4 stage will tend to increase height and decrease standability – increasing the likelihood that the crop will grow too tall to support its own weight and fall over or lodge. Pay attention to the characteristics of the variety to determine if it can handle a late fertilizer application. North Dakota and South Dakota lines like Deon and Hayden tend to get very tall so they are at high risk of lodging with late fertilizer applications. But, Illinois varieties are shorter and respond better to these late applications. In general, it’s better to keep fertilizer applications to pre-planting or soon after planting. Check the standability rating on the seed variety notes to gauge the risk of lodging with a later application.
On Thursday April 6, fifty-one attendees gathered in the Leighton Town Hall for a cover crop field day hosted by Ward Van Dyke. After tucking into a delicious lunch organized by Sandi Van Dyke, we dove into the management and benefits of cover crops. We stayed indoors and had several presentations inside to kick off the program before moving our “cover crop caravan” to two field sites on two different farms to see cover crops on the ground.
First Ward spoke about his experience with cover crops. He started slow with oats, but now he does everything with cereal rye. Though he thinks the cover crops are great for stewardship, he’s now looking to “make cover crops pay” through weed control. And so far it’s working, he said, “we just don’t get the problems with marestail when there’s rye.” Last year, he added a pre-emergent herbicide to the glyphosate burndown, but was able to cut out all herbicide applications after that. This year he hopes to leave off the pre-emergent herbicide application altogether.
“We have an infiltration problem, not a runoff problem.” This Ray Archuleta quote was much discussed on third and final installment in the American Society of Agronomy’s 2017 webinar series “Cover Crops – Looking Beyond the Basics.” The webinar, which took place on February 9, featured Anne Verhallen, a soil scientist from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, and Dave Brandt, a farmer from Ohio, describing their scouting strategies for cover crops, and how these practices help them get to the root of production challenges on their farm.
A farmer scouts any time he or she goes out into the field and takes data on environmental and crop conditions. Taking data can mean many things from taking pictures to performing simple tests and recording the outcomes. For example, in order to determine if you have an infiltration problem — which as Archuleta reminds us, is really the source of runoff — Anne suggests performing an infiltration test, driving a plumbing pipe or coffee can with the bottom removed into the soil and then timing how long it take 1 inch of water to infiltrate until the surface is just glistening. Results will vary based upon soil type, but you ideally want to measure an inch of infiltration in minutes rather than hours. Anne says, “The soil needs pores from earth worms or cover crop roots to open space for infiltration. If it crusts then you’re going to start seeing erosion and loss of soil.”
We don’t often think of our cover crops as gun slinging cowboys and cowgirls of the old west, staring down their pistols at villains of agriculture: diseases, insects, and weeds. But by the end of the webinar “Cover Crops and Pest Management: The Good and the Bad,” I was pretty convinced that while cover crops are no silver bullet for the big bads of agriculture, they mostly fall into the good category – even if they have a glint of the bad in their eye.
This first installment in the American Society of Agronomy’s “Cover Crop 2017 Webinars – Beyond the Basics” series explored the relationship between pests and cover crops. The two speakers showed that cover crops can be effective for combating pests (particularly weeds), but their potential to double-cross the farmer and become a host for insects and diseases should always inform management decisions.
Today I’d like to introduce you to two farmers: Jenny Quiner and Dusty Farnsworth. Jenny runs a ¼ acre urban vegetable farm in Des Moines while Dusty farms several hundred acres of organic and conventional row crops with integrated hogs and cattle. What do these two have in common besides their membership in Practical Farmers of Iowa? They both use the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) to develop infrastructure and implement environmental protection measures on their farms.
EQIP is a federal cost-share program for farmers who implement any one (or more!) of a large list of approved practices. Though EQIP applications are accepted on a continuous basis, March 17, 2017 is the deadline to submit mid-year 2017 applications for timely response. In 2016, 122 approved practices included projects such as installing windbreaks, bioreactors, and pollinator habitat or writing grazing and nutrient management plans. Approved practices are determined on a county by county basis depending on the environmental and conservation needs of the area. This map shows the 2017 lists of approved practices by clicking through for each county.
All approved practices qualify for 50% cost share, but certain factors such as historically under-served farmer status and/or alignment with federal initiative policies cause the cost-share rate to climb to a maximum of 90% (specifics on page 1 of this document). Though formulated as a percent, the payment is actually a flat rate based on the cost of implementing the practice in your area.
One of the benefits of small grains is that they are very versatile crops. As we discussed in our previous blog about variety selection, a farmer can have many different end uses in mind when planting a small grain. One of the uses is to bale the straw for sale or for their own use. On our Feb 3 shared learning call, Extension educator and farmer Margaret Smith talked us through the costs of baling straw and market outlets for this product, advising that you have to do your math homework to see if it will fit in your business plan.
There are three main costs involved in baling straw. The labor and equipment costs are the biggest line items, but — Margaret cautions — don’t forget that by removing straw you’re taking nutrients off the field. Straw yields vary, but we’ll use a typical yield of 1 ton/A for the following discussion. The current cost to replace macro-nutrients removed in a ton of straw is $9 for potassium (K) and $2.20 for phosphorus (P). In addition, carbon is lost from the system (800 lbs C/ton of straw) limiting potential positive impact on soil organic matter, though this aspect of soil health has no immediate, out-of-pocket dollar value. She estimates the costs per ton per acre for custom baling range from $67 to $77, but only about $60 if you own the equipment and are baling yourself, as shown in the table below.
Do you plant cover crops on your farm? Then you know that they improve your soil health and clean your water, but do you ever wonder what they do for your bottom line? While many scientific studies have been done that quantify environmental benefits of cover crops, there just isn’t the same research regarding the economic benefits. With funding from the SARE program, Practical Farmers of Iowa and Iowa State University are trying to fill this gap but we need your help.
We have developed an online survey to quantify the economic return on investment of your cover crops. If you farm in the Midwest and have used cover crops please take a moment of your time to fill out this survey before March 1, 2017. Your participation will help us tell the story of how we can take positive steps for farm incomes without compromising the opportunities of future generations. Thank You.
Visit this URL to participate today: tinyurl.com/covercropROI
When considering whether or not to grow small grains, one of the main things farmers consider is: can I sell them? In order to answer this big question, farmers often have to answer several smaller questions about who they can sell to, the logistics of how to sell, and what quality metrics and thresholds are expected. To help farmers answer these questions, we convened the second Small Grains Shared Learning Call on February 3. Jessie VanderPoel from Grain Millers in IA, Tim Marlin from the DeLong Company in WI and
Scott Woodside from Cargill in MO all talked about how they price and buy small grains for their milling facilities to answer the following frequently asked questions about small grains markets.
Where are you located and what small grains do you buy at your facility?
Grain Millers has a large mill in St. Ansgar Iowa that mainly buys conventional and organic oats. They also buy organic and conventional barley, rye, hard red wheat, and soft white wheat. Additionally, they buy conventional triticale. DeLong Company buys some oats, but mainly deals with soft red winter wheat in their elevators throughout Wisconsin and Northern Illinois. Cargill has two locations that accept both soft and hard wheat in Kansas City, Missouri. They also buy oats and wheat at their feed mill. Continue reading